PEUGEOT BlueHDi, HYbrid Air, 208 HYbrid FE: a new technological and environmental lead
In the face of current environmental and fuel economy challenges, PEUGEOT considers innovation to be a major area of differentiation and establishes itself as a leader in numerous technologies for reducing the impact on the environment.
The Marque’s aim is to have a wide range of technologies available to fulfil many customer requirements in terms of performance (driving pleasure and fuel economy), use (urban, multi-purpose, inter-urban), price and geographic coverage.
Therefore, the approach is varied. It relates to optimisation of the drivetrains (internal combustion, electric and hybrid), to the post-treatment of pollutant emissions and to the materials.
European leader in 2012 with CO2 of 121.5g/km, in 2013 PEUGEOT is reducing the weighted average emissions of CO2 of its European range still further. At the end the May this stands at 116.3g/km.
New technologies will allow it to achieve the ambitious CO2 policy target of 95g per kilometre on the weighted average of the new vehicles sold in Europe in 2020 and offer particularly economical engines with 2.0 l/100km (141mpg).
BlueHDi refers to the exclusive diesel emission control technology, uniquely combining oxidation catalysis, SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) and the DPF with additive, the only one to combine reduction of NOx by up to 90%, elimination of particulates and reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.
The HYbrid Air combines petrol and compressed air in a full hybrid solution. The simplicity, durability and international nature of this technology make it potentially available to the largest audience of consumers. The HYbrid Air is a key step in reaching the target of 2.0l/100km (141mpg).
To achieve this, the non Plug-in, petrol full-hybrid PEUGEOT 208 HYbrid FE explores new technologies. This technological concept, in partnership with Total, combines driving pleasure with low CO2 emissions.
BlueHDi: exclusive diesel emission control technology extended to the entire range from 2013.
HDi Diesel: an engine of the future to fulfil the challenges of reducing CO2 emissions
The HDi Diesel engine has better energy efficiency than a petrol engine. With equivalent performance, it consumes approximately 25% less fuel, which equates to a reduction in CO2 emissions of around 15%.
The Diesel engine remains an essential means of reaching the ambitious CO2 policy target of 95g per kilometre on weighted average of new vehicles sold in Europe in 2020.
PEUGEOT, leader in the elimination of particulates
At the end of the 90s PEUGEOT identified the need to treat the fine particulates emitted by diesel engines to bring them down to the level of those of petrol engines.
The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) launched as a world first by PEUGEOT on the 607 in 2000, eliminates all particulates regardless of their size - fine and ultra-fine - by 99.9% by number.
From 2007 the marque deployed the DPF massively and made it standard on its entire range, before the Euro 5 standard imposed its application on all diesel vehicles of motor vehicle manufacturers present in Europe in 2011.
The DPF is a mechanical system which permanently traps all particulates in all conditions of use of the vehicle, as soon as the engine starts, hot or cold, in town, on a main road or on the motorway. They are then burned automatically during ‘regeneration’, with no effect on the operation of the vehicle.
Unlike its competitors who have opted for catalysed filters, PEUGEOT uses a DPF with additive. It offers better performance due to regeneration which is four times faster than the catalysed filters, permitting optimum operation in all driving conditions, including in town, and limiting the consumption of fuel linked with the injections which are essential to ensure the regeneration of the catalysed filters. PEUGEOT’s technology using additive even contributes to reducing the fraction of NO2 contained in the NOx (acknowledged in an AFSSET report in 2009).
BlueHDi: a new technological lead in diesel emission control
BlueHDi is the most effective diesel emission control system on the market in terms of reduction of pollutant emissions including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulates.
To retain its leadership as regards environmental efficiency, PEUGEOT - again the first - is choosing to extend the BlueHDi technology to its entire diesel range from the end of 2013.
BlueHDi is the unique combination of oxidation catalysis, SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) and the DPF with additive. This unprecedented installation of the SCR positioned upstream of the DPF with additive at once reduces emissions of NOx (nitrogen oxides) by up to 90%, eliminates 99.9% of particulates by number and optimises CO2 emissions and fuel economy by up to 4% (compared to the Euro 5 diesel engines).
BlueHDi already amply complies with the Euro 6 standard - applicable to new vehicles from September 2014 and to all vehicles from September 2015 - due to its operational efficiency.
In addition to the intrinsic efficiency of the DPF with additive and the SCR, the BlueHDi offers two distinct advantages:
- The SCR technology optimises the tuning of the engine to favour consumption and specific performance, unlike the solutions with emission control at the source and NOx traps which penalise consumption and CO2 emissions.
- Installing the SCR upstream of the DPF with additive permits more rapid treatment of the emissions on starting the engine.
In more detail, a diesel engine emits pollutants caused by the combustion:
- Unburned hydrocarbons (HC)
- Carbon monoxide (CO)
- Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
Due to the BlueHDi emission control system, these are eliminated in three stages.
First stage: the oxidation catalytic converter eliminates the HC and the CO, these are transformed into water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
Second stage: the SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) transforms the nitrogen oxides (NOx) into water and nitrogen (N2), which is the main constituent of air (78%), due to the addition of AdBlue® (mixture of urea and water).
Third stage: the Particulate Emission Filter eliminates 99.9% of the particulates by number.
The first applications are:
- PEUGEOT 508 equipped with two new engines 2.0-litre BlueHDi Euro 6 from the end of 2013
110kW/150bhp from 4.1 l/100km (68.8mpg); CO2 at 105g/km
133kW/180bhp from 4.3 l/100km; (65.6mpg) CO2 at 112g/km
- New PEUGEOT 308 equipped with new Euro 6 in spring 2014
1.6-litre BlueHDi 88kW/120bhp from 3.1 l/100km (91.1mpg); a record in the segment with CO2 at 82g/km
2.0-litre BlueHDi 110kW/150bhp
HYbrid Air: a key step towards the heart of the range hybrid
With the HYbrid Air technology, PEUGEOT is innovating once more in the interests of the environment and of its customers in all of its markets. In fact, this new drivetrain combines petrol and compressed air to address the growing challenges facing the motor industry.
It is an essential step towards the goal of reducing fuel consumption to just 2.0l/100km (141mpg). To achieve this, it will be combined with the continuous improvement of the engines and the reduction in weight permitted by new platforms.
HYbrid Air, the evidence
The specification for this technology had clear objectives: substantial reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, on all continents, by means of an affordable technology, which can be applied to the private and light commercial vehicles of the B and C segments.
To fulfil this specification, the HYbrid Air unites tried and tested technologies: a new generation of 3-cylinder petrol engines and compressed air. Some 80 patents testify to the expertise mobilised for this important R&D (research and development) work.
Principle of operation
HYbrid Air combines two energy sources to achieve the best efficiency according to the different situations encountered. The compressed air will assist the petrol engine, or even take its place, to bring it to these most efficient points of operation during acceleration and moving off.
This technology uses certain components which are new to the motor industry but widely used in other sectors such as aeronautics. HYbrid Air consists of:
an energy tank, containing pressurised air, installed under the body in the central tunnel,
a low pressure reservoir at the rear suspension crossmember, acting as an expansion bottle,
a hydraulic unit consisting of a motor and a pump, installed under the bonnet on the driveshaft.
The latter consists of a controlled epicyclic train to manage the distribution between the two energy sources. It replaces the mechanical gearbox and in addition offers automatic gear changes.
The internal combustion engine is the latest generation 3-cylinder petrol engine. It benefits from the most modern technology: optimisation of the weight and of the compactness by means of maximum integration of the components, reduction of internal friction by means of the use of a Diamond-like Carbon coating, Split Cooling thermo-management for a faster increase in temperature, etc.
HYbrid Air has the initial advantage of being compatible with the existing platform in the interests of passenger space, modularity and volume of the petrol tank, which remain unchanged.
Three modes: Air (ZEV), Petrol, Combined
The ECU software will control the two sources of energy to achieve the best overall efficiency possible according to the situation. The switch between the three modes available is completely transparent to the driver.
In the Air (ZEV) mode, only the energy contained in the compressed air drives the vehicle. As it decompresses, the air occupies an increasingly large space in the energy tank and so displaces a corresponding volume of oil. This latter is an energy carrier which supplies the hydraulic motor coupled to the epicyclic train. As the internal combustion engine is switched off, the vehicle moves without consuming fuel or emitting CO2. This mode comes into its own when driving in town.
In Petrol mode, only the 1.2-litre VTi 3-cylinder petrol engine powers the vehicle. This engine benefits from the latest technology to obtain, compared to the previous generation, a reduction in weight of 21kg, friction reduced by 30% and thermo-management modified to reach the optimum operating temperature more quickly. This mode is particularly suited to main roads and motorways at steady speed.
In the Combined mode, the petrol engine and hydraulic motor operate together to move the vehicle, in proportions adapted according to the situation to achieve optimum fuel economy. Flexible, the HYbrid Air can supply the hydraulic motor from two sources. As long as the quantity of energy in the pressurised air tank is sufficient to fulfil the driver’s requirements, the hydraulic motor operates using this source. Then, if necessary, it can be supplied by the hydraulic pump directly. This mode is intended in particular for the moving off and acceleration in town and on main roads.
The energy reservoir is filled in two ways. On deceleration (braking or releasing the accelerator pedal), the vehicle is slowed down not by application of the brakes but by the resistance to the compression of the air in this accumulator. The alternative consists of filling by restarting of the internal combustion engine; in this situation, some of the energy produced by the petrol is used to compress the air. In both cases, the maximum energy capacity of the accumulator under pressure is reached very quickly, in only ten seconds.
On the way to 2.0 l/100km (141mpg)
The flexibility of the HYbrid Air offers numerous advantages. By using tried and tested components, its durability makes it perfectly suited to the wide range of driving conditions encountered across the continents. Remarkable, this innovative technology has the potential to become the heart of the range and an international hybrid. Customers of private and light commercial vehicles of the B and C segments will experience:
Urban driving in Air (ZEV) mode up to 80% of the time, therefore with no consumption of fuel,
with, at the same time, a 45% reduction in fuel consumption when driving in town,
smooth driving due to the automation of the transmission,
passenger space and modularity which remain unchanged, as does the capacity of the fuel tank,
peace of mind due to the tried and tested components.
On the current generation of B segment vehicles, the HYbrid Air considerably reduces fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. In fact, on completion of the homologation drive cycle test, the figures are set at just 2.9l/100km (97.4mpg) and CO2 at 69g/km.
The HYbrid Air is a key step towards 2.0 l/100km (141mpg) in combination with other technological advances.
An innovative R&D model
Such an ingenious idea cannot be the result of a conventional development plan. The HYbrid Air technology is the end product of a project which mobilised 200 people on the same platform. The expertise represented, from the development of a drivetrain to the strategic vision, by way of customer surveys, worked in very close collaboration with the strategic suppliers, which include Bosch.
Finally, the HYbrid Air was developed in financial partnership with the Investing in the Future Programme of the Ademe, the French Environment and Energy Management Agency.
208 HYbrid FE: technology to achieve 2.0 l/100km (141mpg)
In partnership with TOTAL, this non Plug-in, petrol full-hybrid is part of marque’s hybrid strategy.
HYbrid4, the diesel-electric hybrid, has already won over 28,000 customers in Europe with its high-level performance. They enable it to take 6% of sales in the hybrid vehicles segment in this market.
The HYbrid Air, the combination of petrol and compressed air, considerably reduces fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. In fact, on completion of the homologation cycle test, the figures are set at just 2.9l/100km (97.4mpg) and CO2 at 69g/km on a vehicle of the current generation. The HYbrid Air is a key step towards 2.0 l/100km (141mpg) in combination with other technological advances.
The 208 HYbrid FE explores technological solutions which will make it possible to achieve this record fuel economy: aerodynamic properties, weight reduction, power train, and hybridisation.
A historic partnership
Since 1995, PEUGEOT and Total have been working together to significantly reduce the fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) of vehicles.
Initiated at the Geneva Motor Show 2013, the aim of the 208 HYbrid FE is to combine real driving pleasure with low CO2 emissions. More precisely, the intention is to halve the CO2 emissions of the cleanest 208, equipped with the 1.0-litre VTi 68 yet to provide it with the acceleration of a performance hatchback car of the segment, like the 208 GTi. A real challenge!
Numerous innovations are implemented in several areas:
- Aerodynamic properties: gain of 25%,
- Weight reduction: 20%,
- Power train: 10% reduction in consumption,
- Hybridisation: recovery of 20% of the energy over one cycle.
Aerodynamic properties: gain of 25%
The aerodynamics experts took the Peugeot design and pushed it to the extreme. The Cd is improved by 25%, to a value slightly lower than 0.25, while keeping the passenger and the boot unchanged.
This performance is achieved in particular by means of components which can be seen from the outside: flat underside, rear diffuser, rear tracks narrowed by 40mm, mirrors eliminated, Tall&Narrow tyres... The size of the grille is reduced by 40% by means of the progress made on the drivetrain.
Weight reduction: 20%
The 208 HYbrid FE benefits from the expertise of the Polymers Division of the Refining-Chemicals branch of Total, as well as of its two subsidiaries CCP Composites and Hutchinson, in the field of composite materials. These are used extensively to reduce the weight by 200kg: one-piece shell, flat underside, doors, lower front panel, bonnet and wings. They are also used in the passenger compartment: door trim pads, centre console and vent trims.
The Pseudo MacPherson suspension innovates with a composite blade fitted in a transverse position, which replaces several parts: suspension springs, lower wishbones and anti-roll bar.
Power train, consumption reduced by 10%
The latest generation 3-cylinder engine evolves in combination with a battery and an electric motor taken from PEUGEOT Sport’s Endurance programme.
The efficiency of the petrol engine (68bhp - 50kW) uses the volume of fuel made available to its full potential. The Miller cycle is optimised and the compression ratio changed to 16:1. Friction losses are reduced by 40% thanks to special reciprocating gears: surface coating, design, balance ... The 1.2-litre VTi-FE engine is also modified as regards cooling towards a minimum of thermal inertia: light engine, less than a quarter of the previous volume and flow of coolant.
The greasing of the piloted manual gearbox, which is standard, is redesigned to reduce the volume of lubricant and prevent splashing of the gears, which consumes energy.
TOTAL Lubricants has developed a prototype oil, offering a reduction of 3%, as well as greases for the driveshafts and their homokinetic seals. The high performance oil, of grade 0W12, develops its properties very rapidly with a shorter temperature rise time. Optimised as regards friction, it retains, both when hot and when cold, an advantage compared to the best products on the market.
Hybridisation, 20% of the energy recovered over one cycle
The architecture is specific with the electric machine fixed to the differential crown wheel. The arrangement permits the provision of reverse gear, by inverting the direction of rotation, and of the starter function and provides access to purely electric ZEV driving. The electric machine combines power and lightness as, at only 7kg, it develops 30kW as a motor and 100kW as a brake.
During the deceleration phases, whether this is on releasing the accelerator pedal or on braking, the vehicle is slowed down preferentially by the electric motor. The hydraulic circuit only comes into operation at the end of braking. During this phase, the electric motor operates as a receiver to recover the energy and charge the Lithium-ion battery. Then, on acceleration, this energy is returned and assists the petrol engine.