PEUGEOT: technological and environmental expertise

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Mon, 17/02/2014 - 11:45
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Faced with major issues around the environment and energy supply, PEUGEOT views innovation as an important lever for differentiation to position it as leader in many of the technologies for the protection of the environment, while still maintaining the level of driving enjoyment in line with the brand’s reputation.
This year, PEUGEOT’s environmental commitment can be seen in the offer of three HYbrid4 models, the extension through the model range of the PureTech three-cylinder petrol engines, the introduction of BlueHDi technology on Diesel engines, the arrival of new automatic gearboxes and the wider availability of the Stop&Start system.
In this way, the brand further reduced the average weighted CO2 emissions of its European range in 2013. With 115.2 g/km in 2013, against 121.6 g/km in 2012, PEUGEOT is on the European podium for the cleanest and most economical brands.
In 2014, PEUGEOT continues its efforts towards the objective of 2 l/100 by 2020 for an improvement in air quality. 

 

 


The new PureTech three-cylinder turbo petrol engine

The family of PureTech engines is growing

After the launch of the 1.0 litre and 1.2 litre naturally aspirated engines, the PureTech family of three-cylinder engines is expanded with the 1.2 litre e-THP 110 and 1.2 litre e-THP 130 turbocharged versions.

This diversity is achieved through the modularity that was part of the design brief for the engine. As a result, 40% of the components of the turbo engine are common to the naturally-aspirated engine. As regards the 110 and 130 hp PureTech turbo engines, they differ only by their calibration and gearboxes.

Modular and compact, clean and powerful, this turbo engine is a concentration of efficiency and the latest technology. In its 110 and130 hp versions, it is intended for the core of the PEUGEOT range in segments B, C and later also D.

 

The three-cylinder architecture and the technologies adopted allowed a demanding design specification to be met, delivering:

• reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions;

• exceptional driving enjoyment;

• reliability without compromise.

 

It offers excellent performance, in fuel consumption as well as in its dynamic sensations and flexibility in use.

Well controlled CO2 emissions

The arrival of the new PureTech three-cylinder 1.2 litre turbo petrol engine represents a true technological step forward. Its compact size, reduced weight and innovative low-friction materials are key factors in the virtuous search for performance and economy. Defined with a high specific power output of 80 kW per litre and 190 Nm per litre, it represents an improvement in engine efficiency while reducing engine capacity at the same time.

The combustion system has been the subject of particular attention in order to make the most of the technologies used in the engine, with in particular the adoption of high pressure (200 bar) direct injection positioned centrally. The position of the injector, the spray pattern (thanks to laser technology), the management of the injection pulses (up to 3 injections possible per combustion cycle) and the injection pressure allow optimum injection of petrol into the combustion chamber for the best possible combustion.

Fuel consumption and the emissions of pollutant gases have been sharply reduced through the optimisation of combustion chamber aerodynamics and variable valve timing for inlet and exhaust.

The bore and stroke are the same as on the naturally-aspirated 1.2 litre version, so as to provide the best compromise between the intrinsic efficiency of the combustion system and friction losses in the engine.

The choice of engine architecture and the technologies used are those proven in the naturally-aspirated version, which had established it as the new benchmark in the segment. These choices were guided by the desire to limit mechanical friction losses, which represent 20% of the power absorbed.

The dimensions of the crankshaft, the offset cylinder bores and the camshaft drive by timing belt in oil contribute to this reduction.

The DLC (Diamond Like Carbon) low-friction surface treatment is used on the piston gudgeon pins, piston rings and tappets to reduce friction. Finally, the controlled oil pump manages lubrication to just what is needed by the engine.

In this way, friction has been reduced by 30% compared to the best benchmark.

For equivalent power and driveability this new engine reduces fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by up to 21 %, compared to current four-cylinder engines.

So the new PEUGEOT 308 1.2 litre e-THP 130, associated with a six-speed manual gearbox, has fuel consumption on the combined cycle of 4.6 l/ 100km and CO2 emissions of 107 g/km.

The best low speed torque/maximum power compromise in the market

The new PureTech three-cylinder1.2 litre turbo petrol engine proves that downsizing can deliver performance and a great driving experience.

With high pressure direct injection and a new high-efficiency turbocharger (running at 240, 000 rpm), it offers exceptional driveability, and this from the lowest engine speeds. As the maximum torque of 230 Nm is obtained at 1750 rpm, it delivers the best low speed torque/maximum power compromise in the market. In addition, 95 % of the torque is available between 1500 and 3500 rpm, promising optimum operation in all circumstances

A robust and innovative design, with no compromise on reliability

In addition to optimised combustion and reduced internal friction, the new PureTech three-cylinder petrol engine benefits from the great care taken in its construction, using state of the art procedures:

• the cylinder head uses the same aluminium alloy and the same manufacturing process as the new generation of Diesel engines ;

• as with the naturally-aspirated version, the exhaust manifold is integral with the cylinder head to reduce overall size and improve engine efficiency ;

• the cylinder block, pressure die-cast, has been strengthened mechanically : casting is done under vacuum with additional heat treatment ;

•  the cast iron liners inserted into the block have an aluminium coating on their backs allowing perfect cohesion between liner and block, delivering reliability and the lowest possible deformation of the liners, contributing towards lower friction levels ;

• the crankshaft is in steel (rather than cast iron as on the naturally-aspirated version) and the connecting rods are stronger through the use of steel with high level mechanical properties to support the exceptional combustion pressures. This steel is also used on the 1.6 litre THP 270 fitted to the PEUGEOT RCZ R.

By the time of its launch, the PureTech three cylinder turbo petrol engine will have been subjected to a severe test programme with more than 25 000 hours on an engine test bed and more than1.6 million kilometres of test driving.

It is on the new PEUGEOT 308 1.2 litre e-THP 130 in April 2014 that the first application of the PureTech three-cylinder turbo petrol engine is seen. From July 2014, the 308 range will be rounded off with a 3-cylinder110 hp turbo petrol version as well as a new six-speed automatic gearbox on the 130 hp petrol version.

 

BlueHDi technology for a new range of Diesel engines

Once again PEUGEOT offers the most efficient emissions control technology in the market

The Particulate Filer (Filtre à Particules - FAP) launched as a world first by PEUGEOT on the 607 in 2000, eliminates 99.9% of particulates whatever their size – fine and ultra fine.

Since 2007, the brand has applied the FAP very widely, generalising its use across the range, well before the Euro 5 standard imposed its application to all Diesel vehicles sold in Europe from January 2011.

Since the end of 2013, the brand has been using the new BlueHDi technology which provides a drastic reduction in the emissions of nitrous oxides. Uniquely associating SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) and a particulate filter with additive, it allows the NOx emissions from new generation Diesel engines to be reduced by up to 90%, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption to be optimised, while still eliminating 99.9 % of particulates.

The BlueHDi offers two key advantages:

• SCR,  allowing engine settings to be optimised for the best fuel consumption and specific performance, contrary to the emissions control solutions that operate at source and NOx traps, which adversely affect fuel consumption and CO2 emissions;

• the installation of the SCR upstream of the FAP with additive allows faster treatment of emissions from engine start-up.

The BlueHDi technology already comfortably meets the Euro 6 Diesel emissions standard and will be progressively introduced on all of the brand’s Diesel models and presents the best potential for meeting future emissions standards.

PEUGEOT continues the application of BlueHDi technology

Introduced on the 508 sedan and SW at the end of 2013 on the BlueHDi 2.0 litre 150 and BlueHDi 2.0 litre 180 versions, the new BlueHDi Diesel emissions control technology is now deployed on the PEUGEOT 308 and 308 SW with the BlueHDi 1.6 litre 100, BlueHDi 1.6 litre 120 and BlueHDi 2.0 litre 150 engines.

On the BlueHDi 1.6 litre 120 version associated with a six-speed manual gearbox, the new PEUGEOT 308 and 308 SW establish a fuel consumption record in the segment with 3.1l/100km and 3.2l/100km respectively, equal to CO2  emissions of 82 and 85 g/km on the combined cycle. With 120 hp and a maximum torque 300 Nm from 1750 rpm, these very low consumption versions constitute a true “core of the range” with remarkable driving enjoyment.

 

The new BlueHDi 2.0 litre 150 engine associates high performance with particularly well contained emissions. With a maximum torque of 370 Nm at 2000 rpm and great flexibility in use, on the new PEUGEOT 308 SW with a six-speed manual gearbox, it returns CO2 emissions from 99g/km

A new generation of even more efficient Euro 6 Diesel engines

BlueHDi 2.0 litre: high level performance and reduced fuel consumption

Already meeting the Euro 6 emissions standard, the new generation of BlueHDi 2.0 litre engine is available in 2 versions of increased performance compared to the generation they replace:

• BlueHDi 2.0 litre 150 : its maximum power of 110 kW or 150 hp is delivered at 4000 rpm and its maximum torque is up to 370 Nm at 2000 rpm ;

• BlueHDi 2.0 litre 180: its maximum power of 133 kW or 180 hp is delivered at 3750 rpm and its maximum torque is up to 400 Nm to 2000 rpm.

With a capacity of 1 997 cc, its two overhead camshafts operated 4 valves per cylinder. Its 3rd generation common rail system delivers a pressure that can reach 2 000 bar.

This new generation of BlueHDi 2.0 litre engines allows savings of 9 to 13 % in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions – except for Stop & Start – compared to the replaced Euro 5 versions, up to 4%  of which are directly attributable to the settings made possible by the SCR fitted upstream of the FAP.

To obtain these levels of performance and fuel consumption, development was focused on three areas:

• improved internal efficiency and reduction of losses ;

• reduced weight;

• the use of auxiliary systems kept strictly to what is needed.

The main changes aimed at improving efficiency and the reduction of losses are as follows:

• the new combustion chamber optimising the mixing of air and fuel (delivered through a 7-hoole injector), the centrally located valves and compression ratio increased to 16.7:1 improve engine efficiency and allow reduced CO2 emissions;

• the new piston rings, of reduced height and cylinder wall pressure, allied to specific piston skirt profiles, as well as the use of 0W15 very low viscosity engine oil, reducing friction. While the new DLC (Diamond Like Carbon) coating applied to the piston gudgeon pins improves  guidance and reduces friction ;

• the inclusion of vent holes above the crankshaft reduces air movements in the cylinder block, so reduces pumping losses.

 

A saving of 7 kg in the overall weight of the engine has been achieved mainly through the following changes:

• a plastic sump casing ;

• a new cylinder block with thinner walls and lower volumes of coolant ;

• the integration of systems to reduce the interfaces and sizes of the modules.

The control of the operation of auxiliary systems keeps their use to just what is strictly necessary:

• the oil pump flow and pressure are modulated according to various parameters such as temperature, engine speed or even engine load ;

• the intelligent coolant outlet housing is controlled electronically and only allows water to circulate within the engine during the first few minutes, for a faster warm up. With this system, the operating temperature can vary between 80 and 105 ° according to requirements (efficiency,  performance, cabin heating) ;

• the fuel gauge sender/pump module regulates the pressure and is controlled to supply the engine with just its precise needs.

BlueHDi 1.6 litre: driving enjoyment and record fuel consumption

The new generation of BlueHDi 1.6 litre engines is modified in ways that help improve fuel consumption, in terms of internal friction (piston rings/liners – engine oil), optimisation of the variable output oil pump and control of the cooling system thermostat. In addition, these engines are associated with manual or automatic gearboxes of improved efficiency, as well latest generation Stop&Start using an alternator-starter or starter motor (depending on version).

These changes allow savings on the BlueHDi 1.6 litre engine of 7.5 to 8.5 % in CO2 emissions – except Stop&Start – compared to the Euro 5 versions replaced, up to 4%  of which are directly attributable to the settings made possible by the SCR fitted upstream of the FAP.

On the new PEUGEOT 308 BlueHDi 1.6 litre 120, it is the unique association of a vehicle designed with reduced weight, a power unit that is both economically and powerful, optimised aerodynamics and ultra low rolling resistance tyres that allows it to claim to be the benchmark in the market for fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

 

New automatic gearboxes for driving pleasure and environmental efficiency

Designed and developed in collaboration with AISIN AW, the biggest manufacturer of automatic gearboxes in the world, a new family of six-speed automatic gearboxes of unequalled performance is available on PEUGEOT vehicles.

The AM6 III, coupled with the BlueHDi 2.0 litre, and the AT6 III, soon to be available with the PureTech 1.2 litre turbo petrol, ensuring a high level of driving enjoyment with fast gear changes and reduced fuel consumption. As a result, for an equivalent engine and tyre fitment, the difference in CO2 emissions compared to a vehicle with a manual gearbox is less than 10 g/km in all cases, and is merely 1g/km difference on the PEUGEOT 308 BlueHDi 2.0 litre 150.

Thanks to the work done on reducing internal friction and the association of torque converters that can be locked up whenever needed to avoid slip, the efficiency of these automatic gearboxes is almost the same as a manual gearbox while maintaining driving enjoyment of the highest level.

Optimisation of internal friction

The reduction of friction in the automatic gearbox itself is a key factor in overall efficiency. The main changes compared to the previous generation are in:

• a reduction in the number of discs in the clutches, coupled with an increase in their operating clearance and optimisation of their profile ;

• optimisation the delivery of the hydraulic valve block allowing the use of a smaller pump and a reduction 50 % to be obtained in its resisting turning couple ;

• varying the lubrication losses using an electrovalve to control delivery according to requirements ;

• optimisation of the profiles of ball and needle roller bearings.

New gear change laws

This new family of automatic gearboxes provide the benefit of lower engine operating speeds, through:

• modification of gear ratios, with a wider spread of gears maintaining performance when moving off and lower engine speed at the higher road speeds. This is made possible by the high torque figure of the BlueHDi 2.0 litre 150 engine (370 Nm) available from 2 000 to 2 500 rpm, with more than 90 % of the maximum figure available from1 700 to 3 000 on average. On average, engine running speeds are lowered by 200 rpm ;

• a reduction in the amount of slip from the torque converter, obtained in part by more frequent lock up and in part through more effective damping. This later is made possible, via the torque converter damper softened by 73 %, by making the torque converter more compact to the benefit of the damping stage.

Increased comfort in use

Thanks to an optimised torque converter, the AM6 III is able to offer a high level of comfort in use, in particular by offering:

• better control of the creep from the gearbox resulting in a lower level of vibration when stationary, with the same level of vibration when in gear (in D or R) as when in neutral ;

• the activation of a lower level of creep at very low speed (between 10 and 20 km/h) while the vehicle has not yet stopped ;

• gear change speed among the best in the market.

As regards the speed and smoothness of the gear changes, these six-speed transverse gearboxes use Quickshift technology and currently offer the best compromise between size, cost and efficiency compared to the 7, 8 or 9-speed gearboxes available in the market.

The main advantages offered by this technology are:

• faster gear changes than with a DCT (Double Clutch Transmission) and the ability to change more than one gear at a time instantly;

• smoothness of gear changing among the best ;

• exceptional reliability with the automatic gearboxes designed to cover 240 000 kilometres ;

• a level of quality in the AISIN AW gearboxes unequalled in the world.

First used on the 508 BlueHDi 2.0 litre 180, the new AM6 III gearbox is also available on the new 308 and 308 SW, associated in this case with the BlueHDi 2.0 litre 150 engine. It has also been designed to drastically reduce CO2 emissions. So on a 308 the difference in emissions compared a manual gearbox is reduced to 1g/km (for the same tyre fitment), making this version extremely well placed in terms of driving pleasure and fuel consumption.

First adaption of a Stop & Start system to a vehicle with an automatic gearbox

For the first time on a PEUGEOT, a Stop&Start system with alternator-starter – or reversible alternator – has been adapted for operation with an automatic gearbox. Recognised as the best system in the market, the e-HDi micro-hybrid technology contributes towards the reduction of CO2 emissions, which can be as much as 15 % lower on the urban cycle. As regards comfort in use, it also has many strong points: silence, speed of operation, absence of vibration, on-board systems maintained and operation in a temperature range down as low as -5 °C.

The installation of an alternator-starter has made necessary the addition of an electric pump to the hydraulic valve block to maintain pressure in the operating circuits when the engine is stopped.

The performance of this alternator-starter has been optimised in all areas:

• restarting, fast and transparent, is achieved in 400 ms, half the time for a conventional starter motor ;

• the absence of noise results from the use of a belt rather than the gears of a conventional starter motor ;

• the absence of vibration, when starting the engine or when going into standby, results from the use of a dual mass flywheel, a sealed airflow valve and faster restoration of idling speed.

Associated with the new AM6 III automatic gearbox, engine stop occurs when stationary with the driver’s foot on the brake or the gearbox in neutral and the engine restarts at 3 km/h with the driver’s foot on the brake or when the brake pedal is released.

Applied for the first time to a 2 litre Diesel engine, this technology is available as standard, on the BlueHDi 150 and 180 versions, with both types of gearbox, manual and automatic.

So, with its new PureTech petrol engines and the BlueHDi Diesel technology meeting the Euro 6 emissions standards, its efficient and robust automatic gearboxes and its benchmark Stop & Start technology, the PEUGEOT brand demonstrates once again its ability to react and innovate. PEUGEOT’s technological advances allow it to offer a range of vehicles that not only deliver performance, reliability and economical operation, but also provide a unique level of driving enjoyment in line with the brand’s reputation.

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